Dandruff is an ailment that causes the scalp’s skin to flake. It’s not a serious infection or contagious. However, it can be uncomfortable and challenging to manage.

Mild dandruff can be treated with a gentle shampoo every day. 


Dandruff symptoms and signs may include:

  • Skin flakes that are visible on your hair, scalp, eyebrows, beard, moustache, shoulders
  • The scalp is itchy
  • The scalp is crusty and scaly in infants with the cradle cap

The symptoms and signs could be more severe when you’re stressed. Also, they tend to be more severe during dry, cold winter months.

When should you see a doctor?

The majority of people suffering from dandruff do not require medical attention. Consult your primary physician or a specialist doctor in skin issues (dermatologist) if your problem isn’t improving with the regular shampoos for dandruff.


Dandruff can be caused by a variety of factors. There are many causes of Dandruff, such as:

  • Oily, irritated skin
  • Dry skin
  • A yeast-like fungal species (Malassezia) feeds on adults’ oily scalps.
  • Sensitivity to hair-care products (contact dermatitis)
  • Other skin disorders, including Eczema.

Risk factors

It is common for anyone to experience hair loss, but some factors could make you more prone:

  • The age of. Dandruff usually begins in young adulthood, and it continues throughout middle age. This doesn’t mean that people over 50 don’t suffer from dandruff. For some, it may last for the rest of their lives.
  • The male gender. Dandruff is more common in males than females.
  • Certain ailments. Parkinson’s disease and various disorders that affect the nervous system increase the risk of developing Dandruff. It is also the case with HIV or a weak immune system.


A doctor will often be able to identify the presence of dandruff by simply taking a look at the scalp and hair.


The flaking and itching that comes with the dandruff condition can be managed for mild dandruff; attempt regular cleansing using gentle shampoos to lessen the buildup of skin cells and oil. If this doesn’t work for you, try a medicated shampoo for dandruff. Certain people can use the shampoo with a medicated ingredient two or three times per week while also doing regular hair washing at other times if they need it. People with dry hair will appreciate less frequent shampooing and a moisturizing conditioner for the scalp and hair.

Products for hair and scalp that are both nonmedicated and medicated can be found in solutions such as foams, gel sprays, oils, and ointments. You might need to try multiple products to discover the one that is effective for you. In addition, you’ll probably need to repeat or even long-term treatment.

If you experience itching or stinging after using any item, discontinue use. Get medical attention immediately if you suffer from an allergic reaction, like a rash, trouble breathing, or hives.

Shampoos for dandruff are classified by the medications they contain. Some are offered in stronger versions on prescription.

Which Shampoos are Ideal for Dandruff Control?

  • Shampoos containing zinc pyrithione (DermaZinc, Head & Shoulders, and others). They are a source of antibacterial and antifungal component Zinc Pyrithione.
  • Shampoos containing tar (Neutrogena T/Gel Scalp 18 Coal-Tar Shampoo, among others). Coal tar slows down the rate at which the skin cells on your scalp fall off and break into pieces. If you have hair that is light in colour, the type of shampoo could cause hair discolouration. It also makes your scalp more sensitive to sunlight.
  • Shampoos with salicylic acid (Jason Dandruff Relief Shampoo, Baker P&S, and others). These products aid in removing scaling.
  • Selenium Sulfide shampoos (Head and Shoulders Intensive, Selsun Blue and many others). These contain an antifungal ingredient. Apply these products according to the instructions and wash them off thoroughly after shampooing since they can cause hair discolouration and scalp.
  • Ketoconazole shampoos (Nizoral Anti-Dandruff). This shampoo is designed to eliminate the fungi responsible for causing dandruff that lives on your scalp.
  • Shampoos containing fluocinolone (Capex Derma-Smoothe/FS). These products have a corticosteroid that helps reduce flaking, itching and irritation.
Side view of a girl washing hair with shampoo in the shower

When to Switch Shampoos for Dandruff?

If one shampoo does the trick for a while, it seems to lose its effectiveness; you can try switching between two different shampoos for dandruff. Then, when your dandruff has been brought under control, you can use this shampoo with a medicated ingredient less often for maintenance and prevention.

Follow the instructions on each shampoo bottle for your test. Certain shampoos need to be left on for a couple of minutes, and others must be quickly rinsed off.

If you’ve been using it frequently for a few weeks but still experience dandruff, speak to your dermatologist or physician. You may need a prescription-strength shampoo or a steroid lotion.

Lifestyle and home remedies for dandruff

You can take steps to lower the risk of developing dandruff or manage it:

  • Learn how to control stress. Stress affects your general health and can make you vulnerable to various diseases and conditions. It can even help trigger dandruff or worsen existing symptoms.
  • Consume a balanced diet. A diet that includes sufficient B vitamins, zinc and certain kinds of fats can help to prevent dandruff.
  • Create your hair and scalp care routine that works for your needs. If you tend to suffer from oily scalp, regular shampooing can help to prevent dandruff. Apply gentle pressure to your scalp to remove the flakes. Rinse thoroughly. If your hair is prone to dry or your scalp becomes irritable, wash less often and condition your hair between shampoos (Design Essentials Melanin Haircare, ScalpBliss).
  • Have a bit of sunshine. Sunlight may be beneficial in reducing dandruff. However, since exposure to UV light can damage your skin and raises your chance of developing skin cancer, you shouldn’t be sunbathing. Instead, you should take a few minutes out in the sun. Make sure you wear sunscreen on your body and face.

Other Ways to Control Dandruff

  • Eliminate hair-styling items. Hair-styling products can get sucked up into your scalp and hair and make them oilier.
  • Coconut oil. Start by rubbing 3 to 5 teaspoons of it on your scalp. Wait for an hour before shampooing your hair. ( trusted source)
  • Aloe vera. Apply a little bit of it to your scalp before the shampoo.
  • Apple cider vinegar. Mix a quarter cup of apple cider vinegar in one-quarter cup of water. Apply it to your hair. Allow it to sit for 15 minutes. Then wash your hair thoroughly. ( trusted source2)
  • Aspirin. Crush two aspirin and mix with shampoo. Shampoo your hair. Leave it for two minutes, then rinse it out.
    • Baking soda. Make sure your hair is wet, and then apply baking soda to your scalp. Allow it to sit for a couple of minutes, and then wash it off.
    • Lemon juice. Rub two teaspoons of lemon juice on your scalp. Let it rest for a few minutes before washing. Then, mix an additional teaspoon of lemon juice with 1 cup of water, and apply it to your hair.
    • Olive oil. Rub a few drops of olive oil onto your scalp. Cover your hair in a shower cap, and then rest on it. The next day, wash your hair. A few studies have demonstrated that tea tree oil, a byproduct from tea tree oil a byproduct of the Australian tea tree, could help with dandruff. However, more research is required. It could irritate your skin or trigger allergies in certain instances.

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