Deoxyribonucleic acid, also known by the name DNA, is what constitutes your biological self. DNA can also give you details regarding your health, growth, and aging process.
With the rise in DNA testing kits for home use typically performed using saliva samples, some wonder whether urine testing can provide similar results.
Urine contains a small amount of DNA but is not as large as saliva or blood. DNA also degrades faster in the Urine, making it difficult to extract it and give accurate test results.
The usage of biological samples and the bodily fluids of people as sources for DNA to identify has been extensively researched and documented.
However, it is not extensively researched as a possible source of DNA that could use for identification purposes. Therefore, this study seeks to determine the potential value of extracting mitochondrial and nuclear DNA of male and female DNA from male and female contributors.
Can you Consider Urine as an Optimal Source of DNA?
Urine isn’t considered an optimal source of DNA because of the insufficient amount of nucleated cells in Human Urine.
The nucleated cells found in the Urine are usually white blood cells and epithelial cells. However, there are significant differences in epithelial cell numbers present in female and male Urine.
Women are likely to contain more epithelial cells found in their Urine, with vaginal cells being the most common chief contributors.
Urine can be used to determine the perpetrator of the crime or to locate an individual victim at a crime scene.
DNA analysis in the lab could be required to identify the person who submitted a specific urine sample, particularly in the event of a negative sample that is not disputed.
Read on to find out details about DNA present in your Urine and the indications it may provide to your general health.
About the DNA present in Your Urine
DNA is composed of nucleotides, including 2-deoxyribose, nitrogen bases, and phosphate groups.
The precise markers contained in each DNA strand are determined by blood tests using white blood cells and epithelial cells located on the surface of your face. Apart from blood, DNA can be found in hair follicles, saliva, and decomposing bones.
Although DNA is found in Urine, it’s linked to the epithelial cells, not directly related to the Urine itself. DNA can be more easily identified in the Urine of females because women might have greater epithelial cell counts which enter their Urine through the vaginal wall.
DNA extraction using the test Urine
It’s hard to find the presence of DNA within the Urine. A low white blood cell count and epithelial cell counts may alter the quality of DNA found in Urine. DNA is also susceptible to deterioration in Urine, which makes it difficult to collect biomarkers before losing their integrity.
A few research conducted (by the Trusted source) suggests that there might be a chance to extract DNA from Urine. However, there are a few cautions:
- Urine from the first or second day of the morning could have the highest yield and is likely to last longer at temperatures in the range of -112degF (-80degC). Additives to sodium can be utilized to further preserve the sample.
- Researchers also discovered variations in the yield of DNA based on gender. The first-morning Urine yielded the highest amount of DNA yields in males. Afternoon urine had greater results of DNA in females.
Although it is possible to take DNA from Urine, the conditions aren’t optimal. Other more reliable sources, like blood, can yield higher amounts without the danger of degradation of biomarkers.
But, some studies suggest (Trusted Source) that urine DNA samples may be useful if other kinds of samples aren’t available.
DNA extracted from Urine and the detection of illnesses
Urine tests could detect DNA fragments; however, the results might not be as precise as they are when testing blood.
Urine samples are used to identify certain health issues and diseases, for example:
- congenital disability in the fetuses
- kidney diseases
- the liver condition
- organ rejection
The Most Important Lessons to Learn
If you consider DNA extraction, the urine sample is not the most appropriate source. The most trustworthy source is blood. Resource for DNA, saliva, hair follicles, and even the hair. If you’re looking to test your DNA, discuss the possibilities with a physician.
But, urine samples aren’t to be ignored entirely. They may provide information about your overall health and can aid your doctor in diagnosing specific diseases and conditions.
If more research is conducted, we may be seeing much more DNA testing based on Urine in the coming years.
If you’re looking for DNA markers that could indicate future diseases, they might predispose you genetically. Therefore, it would be best if you considered consulting a specialist to conduct the blood test.