What is Pneumonia?

Pneumonia can be described as an illness that causes inflammation of the lungs’ air sacs. As a result, the air sacs can fill with pus or fluid (purulent substance), which can cause coughing with pus or Phlegm and chills, fever, and trouble breathing. Many different organisms, such as viruses, bacteria, and fungi, can trigger pneumonia.

Pneumonia can range in severity from minor to life-threatening. It is the most dangerous for children and infants and people who are older than 65, as well as those with illnesses or weak immune systems.

Symptoms of Pneumonia

The symptoms and signs can range from mild to serious, dependent on factors like the type of infection that is causing the illness and your general health and age. Signs and symptoms that are mild have the same characteristics as influenza or colds but last longer.

Acute and chronic symptoms could include:

  • Itchy throat whenever you cough or breathe
  • Changes in mental awareness (in older adults aged 65 and older)
  • Cough, which can produce Phlegm
  • Fatigue
  • Shaking, sweating, and fever chills
  • Temperatures that are lower than normal (in adults over the age of 65 and those who have fragile immune systems)
  • Nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea
  • Breathlessness

Infants and newborn babies may have no signs of infection. However, they may vomit, experience coughing and fever, appear tired or restless, sluggish, or experience difficulty eating and breathing.

When is the best time to visit a doctor?

Consult your physician if you suffer from breathing difficulties and chest pain, a fever of more than 102 F (39 C) or more, or a persistent cough. It is especially true when you’re coughing pus.

It’s crucially important that people with these risky groups visit the doctor

  • Adults who are older than 65
  • Children younger than two who show signs and symptoms
  • People who have an existing health issue or a weak immune system
  • People who are receiving chemotherapy or taking medicines that suppress the immune system.

For older adults and those with heart disease or chronic lung conditions, it is possible for pneumonia to quickly turn into an extremely dangerous situation.


A variety of germs can cause pneumonia. Most commonly, they are viruses and bacteria that we breathe in. The body generally stops these harmful germs from entering your lung. But, in some cases, these germs may cause a weakened immune system even if your overall health is generally healthy.

Pneumonia is classified according to the kinds of bacteria that cause it and the place you contracted the infection.

Pneumonia that is acquired from the community

Community-acquired pneumonia is by far the most prevalent kind of pneumonia. It can occur outside of hospitals and other health facilities. For example, it could be the result of:

  • Bacteria. The most common reason for pneumonia caused by bacteria within the U.S. is Streptococcus pneumonia. The type of pneumonia could be asymptomatic or following influenza or a cold. It can affect just one area (lobe), the lung, known as lobar pneumonia.
  • Bacteria-like microorganisms. Mycoplasma pneumonia also causes pneumonia. The majority of cases have more mild symptoms than other forms of pneumonia. Walking pneumonia is a common term used to describe this kind of pneumonia. It usually isn’t serious enough to warrant the use of a bed.
  • Fungi. This type of pneumonia is more common among those with chronic health issues or weak immune systems and those who have inhaled large amounts of these organisms. The fungi responsible for it are found in bird or soil droppings and vary according to the location of the fungus.
  • The virus includes COVID-19Certain viruses that cause colds and flu can trigger pneumonia. These viruses are the main causes of pneumonia among children less than five years old. The majority of cases of pneumonia caused by viral infections are mild. In some instances, however, it may become extremely grave. Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) could cause pneumonia, which may become a severe condition.

  Acquired Pneumonia in a hospital.

Many people contract pneumonia during an inpatient stay due to another reason. The risk of contracting pneumonia in a hospital is high since the bacteria responsible could become more resistant to the antibiotics. Those who hire it already have a serious illness. People who use respirators (ventilators) frequently employed in intensive care units are more at risk for pneumonia.

The health care system-acquired pneumonia

Health care-acquired pneumonia (HCAP) is an infection caused by bacteria found in those who reside in facilities for long-term health care or receive treatment at outpatient clinics such as renal dialysis centers. Similar to pneumonia acquired in hospitals, healthcare-acquired pneumonia could cause a bacterial infection resistant to antibiotics.

Aspiration pneumonia

Aspiration pneumonia is a condition that occurs when you breathe liquids, food, and saliva into your lung. It is more likely when something disrupts your gag reflex, like brain injury, swallowing problems, or drinking or using drugs.

Risk factors of Pneumonia

Pneumonia is a condition that can affect everyone. However, the two populations most at risk include:

  • Children who are two years old or less
  • Age 65 or over

Other risks include:

  • Hospitalization. You’re a greater chance of contracting pneumonia if you’re in a hospital’s intensive care unit, particularly if you’re in a device that assists respiration (a ventilator).
  • Chronic illness. It is more likely that you will contract pneumonia if you suffer from the chronic condition of asthma or chronic obstructive lung disease ( COPD ), or heart disease) or heart.
  • The act of smoking. Smoking damages your body’s natural defenses against bacteria and viruses that cause pneumonia.
  • Insufficiency or weakening of the immune system. People who have HIV / AIDS Anyone who has received an organ transplant or receiving long-term steroids or chemotherapy are at high risk.

Complications of Pneumonia

Even after treatment, certain sufferers of pneumonia, in particular, those in high-risk groups, could be afflicted with complications, which include:

  • The bacteria that make it into the bloodstream (bacteremia). Bacteria that make it into the bloodstream through your lungs can cause infection in other organs, leading to an organ malfunction.
  • Trouble breathe. If your pneumonia is severe or you suffer from chronic lung conditions, you may have difficulty getting enough oxygen into your lungs. You might need to be admitted to a hospital and use a breathing device (ventilator) as your lung is healing.
  • A buildup of fluids around the lung (pleural effusion). Pneumonia may result in the accumulation of fluid in the tiny space between the tissue layers that line the lungs and the chest cavities (pleura). If the liquid gets infected, you might need to drain it through an airway or a chest tube or remove it by surgery.
  • Abscess in the lung. A spot occurs when pus develops inside a cavity within the lung. Abscesses are usually treated by using antibiotics. Sometimes surgical intervention or drainage using an elongate tube or needle placed in the spot is required to eliminate the pus.


To help prevent pneumonia:

  • Get vaccination. Vaccines are available to protect against certain kinds of flu and pneumonia. Discuss with your doctor the possibility of having these shots. The guidelines for vaccinations change over time, so check your vaccination history with your physician even if you have a memory of having a vaccine for pneumonia.
  • It is important to ensure that children are vaccinated. Doctors recommend a separate pneumococcal vaccine for children under two years of age and children between two to five years old that are at a greater danger of contracting the pneumococcal disease. Children enrolled in an organized child care center should also be vaccinated. Doctors recommend flu shots for children over six months.
  • Maintain healthy hygiene. To protect yourself from respiratory infections, which can result in pneumonia, you should wash your hands frequently or use alcohol-based hand soap.
  • Do not smoke cigarettes. Smoking damages your lung’s natural defenses against respiratory infections.
  • Make sure your body’s immune system is in good shape. Get enough sleep, do regular exercise and eat a balanced diet.

Based on the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (Trusted Source), patients with an infection known as viral are most at the risk of developing bacterial pneumonia.


Healthcare Professional

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